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How digital cameras work?

Digital cameras look very much like ordinary film cameras but they work in a completely different way. Digital and film cameras share an optical system, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. The diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the image, just as with film but the image pickup device is electronic rather than chemical.

However, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded, and store and delete images from memory.

In the camera there is a piece of electronic equipment that captures the incoming light rays and turns them into electrical signals. This light detector is called a charge-coupled device (CCD).

The main components of a digital camera are:

  1. Battery compartment: to provide suitable voltage to the camera 
  2. Flash capacitor:is used to store the energy
  3. Flash lamp: Operated by the capacitor. It is for providing light while clicking photographs
  4. LED: A small red LED (light-emitting diode) indicates when the self-timer is operating, so you can take photos of yourself more easily.
  5. Lens: The lens catches light from the object you’re photographing and focuses it on the CCD.
  6. Focusing mechanism: This camera has a simple switch-operated focus that toggles the lens between two positions for taking either close-ups or distant shots.
  7. CCD: This is the light-detecting microchip in a digital camera.
  8. USB connector:is there so that you can connect your camera to other devices like computer or laptop
  9. SD (secure digital) card slot: It is for saving your photos.
  10. Processor chip: The camera’s main digital “brain”. This controls all the camera’s functions.
  11. Wrist connector: The strap that keeps the camera securely tied to your wrist attaches here.
  12. Top case: Simply screws on top of the bottom case


A digital camera uses a grid (or an array) of photo sensors to record the incoming pattern of light. Each sensor returns an electrical current when it’s struck by the incoming light.Because the amount of current that’s returned varies with the amount of light, your digital camera’s electronic innards can combine the different current levels into a composite pattern of data that represents the incoming light — in other words, an image in the form of a binary file.


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